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Three areas of application of laser technology in China

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[Abstract]:
Three areas of application of laser technology in China
Laser marking technology, laser cutting technology and laser welding technology are the three major areas of laser technology application in China.
 
Laser marking technology
 
Laser marking technology is one of the largest applications for laser processing. Laser marking is a marking method that uses a high-energy-density laser to locally illuminate a workpiece, causing a chemical reaction of the surface material to vaporize or undergo a color change, thereby leaving a permanent mark. Laser marking can produce a variety of text, symbols and patterns, etc., the size of the characters can be from millimeters to micrometers, which has special significance for the anti-counterfeiting of products. The focused ultra-fine laser beam is like a tool, which can remove the surface material of the object point by point. Its advanced nature is that the marking process is non-contact processing, without mechanical extrusion or mechanical stress, so it will not damage the processed object; The size of the laser after focusing is small, the heat-affected area is small, and the processing is fine, so that a process that cannot be realized by a conventional method can be completed.
 
The “tool” used in laser machining is the spot after focusing. No additional equipment and materials need to be added. As long as the laser works normally, it can be processed continuously for a long time. Laser processing is fast and low cost. Laser processing is automatically controlled by a computer and requires no human intervention during production.
 
What kind of information can be marked by the laser is only related to the content designed in the computer. As long as the artwork marking system designed in the computer can recognize it, the marking machine can accurately restore the design information to the appropriate carrier. Therefore, the function of the software actually determines the function of the system to a large extent.
 
Laser cutting technology
 
Laser cutting technology is widely used in the processing of metal and non-metal materials, which can greatly reduce processing time, reduce processing costs and improve workpiece quality. The modern laser has become the "sword" of the "cutting iron and mud" that people are imagining. Taking our CO2 laser cutting machine as an example, the whole system consists of control system, motion system, optical system, water cooling system, smoke exhausting and blowing protection system. It adopts the most advanced numerical control mode to realize multi-axis linkage and laser speed-free. The influence of equal energy cutting, at the same time support DXP, PLT, CNC and other graphic formats and enhance the interface graphics processing capabilities; the use of superior performance of the servo motor and transmission steering structure to achieve good motion accuracy at high speed.
 
Laser cutting is achieved by applying high power density energy generated by laser focusing. Under the control of the computer, the laser is discharged by pulse, thereby outputting a controlled repeated high-frequency pulsed laser to form a beam of a certain frequency and a certain pulse width, and the pulsed laser beam is transmitted and reflected through the optical path and focused by the focusing lens group. On the surface of the processed object, a subtle, high-energy-density spot is formed, and the focal spot is located near the surface to be processed to melt or vaporize the material to be processed at an instant high temperature. Each high-energy laser pulse instantly sputters a small hole in the surface of the object. Under computer control, the laser processing head and the material to be processed are continuously moved relative to each other according to the pre-drawn pattern, so that the object is processed into The shape you want. When cutting, a coaxial airflow with the beam is ejected by the cutting head, and the molten or vaporized material is blown out from the bottom of the slit (Note: if the blown gas and the material being cut produce a thermal reaction, the reaction will provide cutting The additional energy required; the airflow also cools the cut surface, reduces the heat affected zone and ensures that the focusing mirror is not contaminated). Compared with traditional sheet metal processing methods, laser cutting has high cutting quality (narrow slit width, small heat affected zone, smooth cut), high cutting speed, high flexibility (any shape can be cut freely), and a wide range of materials. Adaptability and other advantages.
 
Laser welding technology
 
Laser welding is one of the important aspects of laser material processing technology. The welding process is heat conduction type, that is, laser radiation heats the surface of the workpiece, and the surface heat is diffused to the inside through heat conduction. By controlling the width, energy, peak power and repetition frequency of the laser pulse, etc. Parameters that melt the workpiece to form a specific weld pool. Due to its unique advantages, it has been successfully applied to the welding of micro and small parts. The emergence of high-power CO2 and high-power YAG lasers has opened up a new field of laser welding. The deep fusion welding based on the small hole effect has been obtained, and it has been widely used in the industrial sectors such as machinery, automobile and steel.
 
Compared with other welding techniques, the main advantages of laser welding are: laser welding speed, depth and deformation. It can be welded at room temperature or under special conditions, and the welding equipment is simple. For example, the laser passes through an electromagnetic field, and the beam does not shift; the laser can be welded in air and in a certain gas environment, and can be welded through glass or a material transparent to the beam. After laser focusing, the power density is high. When soldering high-power devices, the aspect ratio can reach 5:1 and the maximum can reach 10:1. It can weld refractory materials such as titanium, quartz, etc., and can weld the opposite materials with good results. For example, the two different materials of copper and tantalum are welded together, and the pass rate is almost 100%. Micro soldering is also possible. The laser beam can be focused to obtain a small spot and can be precisely positioned. It can be used in the mass welding of micro- and small-sized components for mass production. For example, integrated circuit leads, clockspring, and kinescope assembly are used. Laser welding not only has high production efficiency and high efficiency, but also has small heat-affected zone and no pollution of solder joints, which greatly improves the quality of welding.
 
It can weld inaccessible parts and perform non-contact long-distance welding with great flexibility. The use of optical fiber transmission technology in YAG laser technology has made laser welding technology more widely popularized and applied. The laser beam is easy to realize beam splitting by time and space, and can perform multi-beam simultaneous processing and multi-station processing, which provides conditions for more precise welding.